Ghadeer in Qur’an

On the day of Ghadeer, some verses form the holy Quran were revealed, which are, on the basis of narrations, stated here under.

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ وَاللَّـهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ

O’ Apostle, Proclaim the Message which has been sent to you from your Lord! And if you do not do that, then you would not have fulfilled and proclaimed His Mission. (Know that) God will protect you from (the mischievous) men. (Sura Al-Ma'idah, 5:67).

This verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet (S) on the day of Ghadeer, before he delivered his historic speech. The narrations by Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) also confirm that this verse was revealed on the day of Ghadeer.

Sheikh Muhammad Ibn Yaqub al-Kulaini (d. 328 AH) quotes this narration on his documentation as under revealing this verse, Allah ordered his Prophet to announce wilayat (guardianship) of Ali (a.s.).

إنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّـهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ

Your guardians are Allah, his Apostle and those who believe –those who establish prayers and give Zakat (poor’s rate) while they are bowing down (in worship). Sura Al-Ma'idah: verse 55

This verse made it compulsory (upon every Muslim) to accept the guardianship of ulu-alamr (people of authorities), but people were not aware of the essence of it. Therefore Allah ordered Prophet Muhammad (S) to clarify for people the concept of wilayat just as he clarified the concepts of prayers, zakat, fasting and hajj.

When this order was declared the Holy Prophet (S) became anxious, fearing that people might leave his religion, rejecting him as a prophet. He thus mentioned this while talking to his Lord. It was at this point that God, the Exalted, revealed the following verse:

يَا أَيُّهَا الرَّسُولُ بَلِّغْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ وَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلْ فَمَا بَلَّغْتَ رِسَالَتَهُ وَاللَّـهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ

O’ Prophet, Proclaim the Message which has been sent to you from your Lord! And if you do not do that, then you would not have fulfilled and proclaimed His Mission. (Know that) Allah will protect you from (the mischievous) men. Sura Al-Ma'idah, verse 67.

Obeying the commandment of God, the Prophet of Allah (S) proclaimed that Ali was the wali (guardian of Muslim affairs). He called for congregational prayer and asked those who were present to inform about it those who were not present.
Great Sunni Huffaz (memorizers of Quran) and famous Sunni scholars such as Ibn Abi Hatam, Ibn Marduyeh, Thalabi, Abu Naeem Isfahani, Wahidi, Haskani, Ibn Asakir, Fakhr Razi, Naishaburi, Einy, Jalal Al-Din Suyuti etc. have also related that this verse was revealed on Ghadir Day.

When the Holy Prophet’s speech ended on the day of Ghadir and those present paid allegiance to Ali (a.s.) as the commander of the faithful, this verse was revealed:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

Today I have perfected your religion for you and finished my bounty upon you and have chosen Islam for you as religion. Sura Al-Ma'idah: verse 3.

Sheikh Kulaini quotes on his own documentation, a narration from Imam Baqir (a.s.) about Imam Ali’s speech which is known as a means (wasila) sermon. In this long speech Imam Ali (a.s.) says:
Then the Prophet of Allah (S) went to Ghadir Khum, and the Muslims made something like a pulpit by his order. The Prophet (S) mounted it and raised my arm to the extent that the whiteness of his armpit became visible. Then he said loudly:

من كنت مولاه فهذا علي مولاه، اللهم وال من والاه وعاد من عاداه

Of whomsoever I am a master, Ali is his master. My Lord! Befriend anyone who befriends him and make enmity towards anyone who makes enmity towards him.
Therefore, friendship with me is friendship with Allah and enmity with me is enmity with Allah.


At this moment Allah revealed this verse:

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

It is due to this, that my guardianship has resulted in the perfection of religion and pleasure of Allah, the Exalted.”

It is worth mentioning that some of the great Sunni scholars and memorizers (of Quran) like Ibn Marduyeh, Abu Naeem Isfahani, Ibn Maghazeli, Muaffaq Maki, Abu Hamed Salehani, Hamyuni etc. have also mentioned that this verse was revealed on the Day of Ghadir Khum.

When people paid allegiance to Amir Al-Muminin and the process came to an end, this verse was revealed concerning a person named Numan Fahri:

سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ بِعَذَابٍ وَاقِع * لِّلْكَافِرِينَ لَيْسَ لَهُ دَافِعٌ

A demander demanded an absolute chastisement. There is no repellent against it for disbelievers. Sura Al-Ma'arej: verses 1 and 2.

Sheikh Furat Ibn Ibrahim Kufi has quoted the following on his documentation:
Husain Ibn Muhammad Kharifi says: “I asked Sufyan Ibn Eyneh which person the verse (سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ ) was revealed about?”
Sufyan answered: “My nephew! You asked about a thing about which nobody had asked me before. I asked the same question from Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) and he reported the following from his father who heard it from his grandfather, who heard it from Ibn Abbas:
On Ghadir Day, Prophet of Allah(S) stood up and made a short speech. Afterwards, he asked for Amir Al-Mu‟minin Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.). (When he came), he took his arm and raised it to the extent that the whiteness of their armpits became visible.

At this moment the Prophet (S) said:

الم ابلّغكم الرسألة؟ الم انصح لكم؟

Have I not proclaimed the message to you? Have I not admonished you?

They said: “Yes you have done it.”
He said:

من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه ، اللهم وال من والاه ، وعاد من عاداه وانصر من نصره ، واخذل من خذله

Of whomsoever I am a master, Ali is his master. My Lord! Befriend anyone who befriends him and make enmity towards anyone who makes enmity towards him, and help anyone who helps him and leave alone anyone who leaves him alone

As the Prophet’s word was circulating among people, Nu’aman became aware of it. He saddled his camel and mounted on its back ... He went to Prophet (S) and greeted him.

The Prophet (S) greeted him back.
Nu’aman said: “O’Muhammad! You asked us to say “La ilaha illa Allah”-There is no god but Allah- we accepted. Then you wanted us to believe in your prophecy, and we accepted while there were some doubts. Then you requested us to pray and we accepted. Then you invited us to fasting and we did so. Then you invited us to perform hajj and we did so. Then you said that any of you who gains two hundred dirham, must give one fifth of that as charity every year, we also obeyed this order from you.

Right now you have chosen your cousin and made him our leader, saying: “Of whomsoever I am a master, Ali is his master. My Lord! Befriend anyone who befriends him and make enmity towards anyone who makes enmity towards him, and help anyone who helps him and leave alone anyone who leaves him alone.” Are these words from you or Allah?

The Prophet of Allah (S) thrice said:

بل عند الله

Indeed from Allah.

At this moment Nu’aman Fahri angrily stood up and said: “O‟ Allah! If these words of Muhammad are right, descend rain of stone upon us from the sky, so that it can be an affliction for the present generation and a sign for coming generations and if they are wrong then descend your misfortune on Muhammad.”

Then he browbeat his camel and opened its shackle. He rode on it and went away. Then, when he was crossing a vast plain, God, the Most High, descended a stone from the sky on his head, in such a way that after hitting his head, the stone came out of his back, causing him perdition.

At this moment, Allah the Most High revealed this verse concerning Nu’aman Fahri.

سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ بِعَذَابٍ وَاقِعٍ * لِّلْكَافِرِينَ لَيْسَ لَهُ دَافِعٌ * مِّنَ اللَّـهِ ذِي الْمَعَارِجِ

A demander demanded an absolute chastisement. There is no repellent against it for disbelievers. (It is) from Allah the owner of the ways of ascent. Sura Al-Ma'arej: verses 1 to 3.

Some of the prominent Sunni scholars and narrators such as Tha'labi, Sebt Ibn Juzi, Zarandi, Samahudi, Ibn Sabbagh, Manawi, Halabi etc have also mentioned that that this verse was revealed about Nu’aman Fahri.
It is worth noting that this narration with the same text has also been reported by Tha’labi on his documentation from Sufyan Ibn Eyneh in his commentary on Quran.

Sheikh Ali Ibn Ibrahim Qomi, a third century great scholar quotes Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) as saying: The following verses were revealed about Ali, the commander of the faithful (a.s.) on Ghadir Day):

وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ* نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ* عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ

And Verily this (holy Quran) has been sent down from the Lord of the worlds; The Faithful Spirit has descended it; upon your heart that you may be of the warners. Quran, Al-Shu‟ara, verses,192 -194.

  1. Al-Kafi, vol. 1, p.289, narration 4.
  2. Addur Al-Manthur, vol. 2, p. 298, Asbab Al- Nuzul, p. 115, Tarjumah Al-Amir Al-Mu'minin Min Tarikh Medinah Dimashq, vol. 2, p. 86. Al-Tafsir Al-Kabir, vol. 12, p.49, Tafsir Naishaburi, vol. 6, p.129-130, Umdat Al-Qari, vol. 18, p.206.
  3. Al-Kafi, vol. 8, p. 27.
  4. Al-Manaqeb, Bin Maghazeli, p. 18, Al-Manaqeb, Khwarizmi, p. 80, Faraed Al-Samtain, vol. 1, p. 74.
  5. Tadkirat Al-Khawas, p. 30, Nadam Dorar Al-Samtee, p. 93, Al-Fusul Al-Muhemmah, p. 42, Feid Al- Ghadir, vol. 6, p.281, Al-Sirat Al-Halbiyah, vol. 3, p.334, Noor Al-Absar, p. 78 etc.
  6. Bihar Al-Anwar, vol. 37, p. 176.
  7. Tafsir Al-Qomi, vol.2, p.124, Sheikh Muhammad Muhsen Feid Kashani (d. 1091 AH), has also narrated this narration on the authority of Tafsir Al-Qomi in his Al-safi fi Tafsir Al-Quran, vol. 4, p.50.